ACROBAT aims to recycle end-of-life LFP LIBs via efficient, innovative and environmentally-friendly processes and separation techniques to recover a maximum amount of EU-CRMs as high-value products and base metals.


In ACROBAT, VITO n.v. (coordinator; VITO, BE), ENEA (ENEA, IT), the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT, DE), the SIM2 institute of the university KU Leuven (KUL, BE), and the battery recycler ACCUREC Recycling GmbH (ACC, DE) will research and develop innovative and environmentally-friendly recycling technologies dedicated to spent lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries. The ACROBAT process will enable the recovery of ≥90% critical raw materials (Li, P, graphite) and aims for direct recycling of electrolyte, graphite and LFP cathode materials.

Currently, no dedicated, economically-viable, industrial-scale process exists to recycle end-of-life LFP-type lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), even though the market for LFP LIBs is predicted to grow exponentially. Therefore, the specific ACROBAT objectives are to develop and test

  • dedicated dismantling and pre-treatment (ACCUREC)
  • extractive recovery of electrolyte materials (ENEA)
  • in-line characterisation of black mass (Fraunhofer ILT)
  • recovery of graphite (SIM2 and VITO); hydrometallurgical lithium recovery and conversion into battery-grade lithium hydroxide monohydrate (SIM2)
  • direct recycling of spent LFP cathode material into virgin LFP (VITO).


Conversion of lithium chloride into lithium hydroxide using a two‑step solvent extraction process in an agitated Kühni column

Read the latest paper KU Leuven wrote as part of the ACROBAT project.

New ACROBAT research paper on simple froth flotation as a recycling method for spent LFP batteries

Olivine-type lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become a popular choice for electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage systems.

ACROBAT general assembly discusses results achieved in the first project year

Sustainable recycling of LFP batteries is an environmental and an economic necessity